The ParaFishControl consortium gathers 29 partners comprising public and private partners with crosscutting complementary skills from 13 European countries: Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

ParaFishControl Map v5





Picard-Sánchez A, Piazzon MC, Estensoro I, Del Pozo R, Ahmed NH, Palenzuela O, Sitjà-Bobadilla A. (2021) Experimental horizontal transmission of Enterospora nucleophila (Microsporea: Enterocytozoonidae) in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Animals, 11(2): 362.

Réka Borzáka, Muhammad Hafiz Borkhanuddin, Gábor Cech, Kálmán Molnár, Sascha L.Hallett Csaba Székely (2021) New data on Thelohanellus nikolskii Achmerov, 1955 (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae) a parasite of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.): The actinospore stage, intrapiscine tissue preference and molecular sequence. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 15 (2021) 112–119. doi:


Wentzel AS, Petit J, van Veen WG, Fink IR, Scheer MH, Piazzon MC, Forlenza M, Spaink HP, Wiegertjes GF. (2020) Transcriptome sequencing supports a conservation of macrophage polarization in fish. Scientific Reports, 10: 13470.

Picard-Sánchez A, Estensoro I, Perdiguero P, Del Pozo R, Tafalla C, Piazzon MC, Sitjà-Bobadilla A. (2020) Passive immunization delays disease outcome in gilthead sea bream infected with Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa), despite the moderate changes in IgM and IgT repertoire. Frontiers in Immunology, 11: 581361.

Picard-Sánchez A, Piazzon MC, Ahmed NH, Del Pozo R, Sitjà-Bobadilla A, Palenzuela O. (2020) Enterospora nucleophila (Microsporidia) in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): Pathological effects and cellular immune response in natural infections. Veterinary Pathology, 57(4): 565-576.

Picard-Sánchez A, Estensoro I, Del Pozo R, Palenzuela OR, Piazzon MC, Sitjà-Bobadilla A. (2020) Water temperature, time of exposure and population density are key parameters in Enteromyxum leei fish-to-fish experimental transmission. Journal of Fish Diseases, 43(4): 491-502.

Mladineo I, Hrabar J, Vidjak O, Bočina I, Čolak S, Katharios P, Cascarano MC, Keklikoglou K, Volpatti D, Beraldo P (2020). Host-Parasite Interaction between Parasitic Cymothoid Ceratothoa oestroides and Its Host, Farmed European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Pathogens: 9(3), 230. doi:

Tedesco P, Beraldo P, Massimo M, Fioravanti ML, Volpatti D, Dirks R and Galuppi R (2020) Comparative Therapeutic Effects of Natural Compounds Against Saprolegnia spp. (Oomycota) and Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinophyceae). Front. Vet. Sci. 7:83. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00083

Palenzuela O, Del Pozo R, Piazzon MC, Isern-Subich MM, Ceulemans S, Coutteau P, Sitjà-Bobadilla A (2020). Effect of a functional feed additive on mitigation of experimentally induced gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata enteromyxosis. Disease of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 138: 111–120. doi:

Sándor, D., Gyöngy, M., Nyeste, K., Czeglédi, I., Székely, C., Buchmann, K., & Cech, G. (2020). Digenean Holostephanus (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) metacercariae in common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) muscle: Zoonotic potential and sensitivity to physico-chemical treatments. Journal of Helminthology, 94, E117. doi:

Ronza P, Estensoro I, Bermúdez R, Losada AP, Pérez‐Cordón G, Pardo BG, Sitjà‐Bobadilla A, Quiroga MI. (2020) Effects of Enteromyxum spp. (Myxozoa) infection in the regulation of intestinal E-cadherin: Turbot against gilthead sea bream. Journal of Fish Diseases 43(3): 337-346. doi:


Folgueira I., Lamas J., de Felipe A. P., Sueiro R. A.,Leiro J.M. (2019). Identification and Molecular Characterization of Superoxide Dismutases Isolated From A Scuticociliate Parasite: Physiological Role in Oxidative Stress. Sientific Reports 9, Article number: 13329. doi:

Kosakyan A, Alama-Bermejo G, Bartošová-Sojková P, Born-Torrijos A, Šíma R, Nenarokova A, Eszterbauer E, Bartholomew J, Holzer A. S. (2019). Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in myxosporean (Myxozoa, Cnidaria) parasites. Scientific Reports 9. doi:

Katakura F, Nishiya K, Wentzel AS, Hino E, Miyamae J, Okano M, Wiegertjes GF, Moritomo T (2019). Paralogs of Common Carp Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Have Different Functions Regarding Development, Trafficking and Activation of Neutrophils.. Frontiers of Immunology, 10:255. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00255

Buchmann, K. (2019). Immune response to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and role of IgT. Parasite Immunology 2019;00:e12675. doi:

Korytář T, Chan, JTH., Vancová M, Holzer A (2019). Blood feast: exploring the erythrocyte‐feeding behavior of the myxozoan Sphaerospora molnari. Parasite Immunology 2019;00:1–7. doi: 10.1111/pim.12683

Folgueira I, Lamas J, De Felipe AP, Sueiro RA, Leiro JM. (2019). Evidence for the role of extrusomes in evading attack by the host immune system in a scuticociliate parasite.Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 92, September 2019, Pages 802-812. doi: here to access the full text.

Molnar, K., Szekely, C., Baska, F., Müller, T., Zuo, S., Kania, P.W., Nowak, B., Buchmann, K. (2019). Differential survival of 3rd stage larvae of Contracaecum rudolphii type B infecting common bream (Abramis brama) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Parasitology Research 118: 2811-2817. doi:

Picard-Sánchez A, Estensoro I,del Pozo R, Piazzon MC, Palenzuela O, Sitjà-Bobadilla A (2019). Acquired protective immune response in a fish-myxozoan model encompasses specific antibodies and inflammation resolution.Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 90: 349-362. doi:

Sitjà-Bobadilla, A., Gil-Solsona, R., Estensoro, I. et al. Disruption of gut integrity and permeability contributes to enteritis in a fish-parasite model: a story told from serum metabolomics. Parasites Vectors 12, 486 (2019).

Cano I, Taylor NGH, Bayley A, Gunning S, McCullough R, Bateman K, Nowak BF, Paley RK (2019). In vitro gill cell monolayer successfully reproduces in vivo Atlantic salmon host responses to Neoparamoeba perurans infection. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 86: 287-300. doi:

Fernandez C, Mascolo D, Monaghan SJ, Baily JL, Chalmers L, Paladini G, Adams A, Bron JE, Fridman S (2019). Methacarn preserves mucus integrity and improves visualization of amoebae in gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Journal of Fish Diseases 42:6. doi: 

Syahputra, K., Kania, P. W., Al-Jubury, A., Marnis, H., Setyawan, A. C., Buchmann, K. (2019). Differential immune gene response in gills, skin and spleen of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. PLOS One 14 (6):e0218630. doi:

Hossameldin Ahmed N., Caffara M., Sitjà‐Bobadilla A., Fioravanti M.L., Mazzone A., Aboulezz A.S., Metwally A.M., Adl‐Eldin Omar M. Palenzuela O.R. (2019). Detection of the intranuclear microsporidian Enterospora nucleophila in gilthead sea bream by in situ hybridization. Journal of Fish Diseases 42:6. doi: 

Byadgi O, Beraldo P, Volpatti D, Massimo M, Bulfon C, Galeotti M (2019). Expression of infection-related immune response in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during a natural outbreak from a unique dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 84:62-72. doi: 

Syahputra, K., Kania, P. W., Al-Jubury, A., Jafaar, R. M., Dirks, R. P., Buchmann, K. (2019). Transcriptomic analysis of immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) gills infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 86: 486-496. doi: 

Korytar T, Wiegertjes G, Zuskova E, Tonanova A, Lisnerova M, Patra S, Sieranski V, Sima R, Born-Torrijos A, Wentzel AS, Blasco-Monleon S, Yanes-Roca C, Policar T, Holzer AS (2019). The kinetics of cellular and humoral immune responses of common carp to presporogonic development of the myxozoan Sphaerospora molnari. Parasites & Vectors 12:208. doi: 

Muñoz-Atienza E, Aquilino C, Syahputra K, Al-Jubury A, Araújo C, Skov J, Kania PW, Hernández PE, Buchmann K, Cintas LM, Tafalla C (2019). CK11, a Teleost Chemokine with a Potent Antimicrobial Activity. Journal of Immunology 202 (3) 857-870. doi:

Piazzon MC, Mladineo I, Naya-Català F, Dirks RP, Jong-Raadsen S, Vrbatovic A, Hrabar J, Pérez-Sánchez J, Sitjà-Bobadilla A (2019). Acting locally - affecting globally: RNA sequencing of gilthead sea bream with a mild Sparicotyle chrysophrii infection reveals effects on apoptosis, immune and hypoxia related genes. BMC Genomics; 20:200. doi:

Tedesco P, Fioravanti ML, Galuppi R (2019). In vitro activity of chemicals and commercial products against Saprolegnia parasitica and Saprolegnia delica strains. Journal of Fish Diseases;42:237–248. doi: 


Øvergård AC, Hamre LA, Grotmol S, Nilsen F. (2018). Salmon louse rhabdoviruses: Impact on louse development and transcription of selected Atlantic salmon immune genes.Developmental & comparative immunology 86:86-95. doi: doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2018.04.023

Blanco-Abad V, Noia M, Valle A, Fontenla F, Folgueira I, De Felipe AP, Pereiro P, Leiro J, Lamas J. (2018). The coagulation system helps control infection caused by the ciliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus (L.). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 87:147-156. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2018.06.001Click here to access the full text.

Guðmundsdóttir S, Vendramin N, Cuenca A, Sigurðardóttir H, Kristmundsson A, Iburg T M, Olesen NJ (2018). Outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) in Iceland caused by VHS virus Genotype IV. Journal of Fish Diseases 42:1. doi: 

Patra S, Bartosova-Sojkova P, Peckova H, Eszterbauer E, Holzer AS (2018). Biodiversity and host-parasite cophylogeny of Spaherosproa (sensu stricto) (Cnidaria: Myxozoa). Parasites & Vectors 11:347. doi: 

Lama R, Pereiro P, Costa MM, Encinar JA, Medina-Gali RM, Pérez L, Lamas J, Leiro J, Figueras A, Novoa B (2018). Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Nk-lysin induces protection against the pathogenic parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi via membrane disruption. Fish and Shellfish  Immunology 82:190-199. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.08.004Click here to access the full text.

Piazzon MC, Estensoro I, Calduch-Giner JA, del Pozo R, Picard-Sánchez A, Pérez-Sánchez J, Sitjà-Bobadilla A (2018). Hints on T cell responses in a fish-parasite model: Enteromyxum leei induces differential expression of T cell signature molecules depending on the organ and the infection status.Parasites & Vectors, 11:443. doi:

Abos B, Estensoro I, Perdiguero P, Faber M, Hu Y, Diaz Rosales P, Granja AG, Secombes CJ, Holland JW, Tafalla C (2018). Dysregulation of B Cell Activity During Proliferative Kidney Disease in Rainbow Trout. Frontiers in Immunology May 2018; 9; Article 1203. doi:

Al-Jubury A, Lu C, Kania PW, von Gersdorff Jørgensen L, Liu Y, de Bruijn I, Raaijmakers J, Buchmann K (2018). Impact of Pseudomonas H6 surfactant on all external life cycle stages of the fish parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Journal of Fish Diseases 2018; 1-6. doi:

de Bruijn I, Liu Y, Wiegertjes GF, Raaijmakers JM (2018). Exploring fish microbial communities to mitigate emerging diseases in aquaculture. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Volume 94, Issue 1, 1 January 2018, fix161. doi: here to access the full text.

Folgueira I, de Felipe AP, Sueiro R A, Lamas J, Leiroa J (2018). Protocol for cryopreservation of the turbot parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia). Cryobiology. 2018 Feb; 80:77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2017.11.010. Click here to access the full text.

Holzer AS,  Bartošová-Sojková P, Born-Torrijos A, Lövy A, Hartigan A, Fiala I (2018). The joint evolution of the Myxozoa and their alternate hosts: A cnidarian recipe for success and vast biodiversity. Molecular Ecology. 2018;27:1651–1666. doi:


Piazzon MC, Wentzel AS, Wiegertjes GF, Forlenza M (2017) Carp Il10a and Il10b exert identical biological activities in vitro, but are differentially regulated in vivo. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, Volume 67, February 2017, Pages 350-360. doi:

De Felipe AP, Lamas J, Sueiro RA, Folgueira I, Leiro JM. (2017) New data on flatfish scuticociliatosis reveal that Miamiensis avidus and Philasterides dicentrarchi are different species. Parasitology 144; 1394-1411. doi: here to access the full text.

Estensoro I, Pérez‐Cordón G,  Sitjà‐Bobadilla A, Piazzon M C (2017). Bromodeoxyuridine DNA labelling reveals host and parasite proliferation in a fish‐myxozoan model. Journal of Fish Diseases Volume 41, Issue 4. doi: here to access the full text.

Granja AG, Holland JW, Pignatelli J, Secombes CJ, Tafalla C (2017). Characterization of BAFF and APRIL subfamily receptors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Potential role of the BAFF / APRIL axis in the pathogenesis of proliferative kidney disease. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174249. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174249

Jørgensen, L.vG., Kania, P.W., Rasmussen, K.J., Mattsson, A. H., Schmidt, J., Al-Jubury, A., Sander, A., Salanti, A., Buchmann, K. (2017). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: doi:10.1111/jfd.12653Click here to access the full text.

Jørgensen, L. v. G. (2017). The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis – Host immunology, vaccines and novel treatments. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 67: 586-595. doi: here to access the full text.

Leal E, Zarza C, Tafalla C (2017). Effect of vitamin C on innate immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocytes. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 67, 179-188. doi: here to access the full text.

Mehrdana F, Buchmann K (2017). Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes: biological and pathological roles. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 59(1), 42.

Mehrdana F, Kania PW, Nazemi S, Buchmann K (2017). Immunomodulatory effects of excretory/secretory compounds from Contracaecum osculatum larvae in a zebrafish inflammation model. PLoS One 12(7):e0181277.doi:

Øvergård A C, Hamre L A, Kongshaug H, Nilsen F (2017). RNAi-mediated treatment of two vertically transmitted rhabdovirus infecting the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 14030 (2017). doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14282-3

Piazzon M.C, Calduch-Giner J.A, Fouz B, Estensoro I, Simó-Mirabet P, Puyalto M, Karalazos V, Palenzuela O, Sitjà-Bobadilla A, Pérez-Sánchez J. (2017). Under control: how a dietary additive can restore the gut microbiome and proteomic profile, and improve disease resilience in a marine teleostean fish fed vegetable diets. Microbiome. 5: 164. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0390-3

Sándor D, Molnár K, Gibson DI, Székely C, Majoros G, Cech G (2017). An investigation of the host-specificity of metacercariae of species of Apophallus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in freshwater fishes using morphological, experimental and molecular methods. Parasitology Research 17:1-12. doi; here to access the full text.

Sitjà-Bobadilla A, Oidtmann B (2017) Integrated Pathogen Management Strategies in Fish Farming, Chapter 5, In: Jeney, G. (Ed.). (2017). Fish Diseases: Prevention and Control Strategies. Academic Press. eBook ISBN: 9780128045855, Paperback ISBN: 9780128045640

Zuo S, Kania PW, Mehrdana F, Marana MH, Buchmann K (2017). Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: molecular and ecological links. Journal of Helminthology 1-9. doi:10.1017/S0022149X17000025Click here to access the full text.

Zuo S, Barlaup L, Mohammadkarami A, Al-Jubury A, Chen D, Kania PW, Buchmann K (2017). Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua). Parasitology Research. 116; 2721-2726. doi: 10.1007/s00436-017-5580-1Click here to access the full text.


Al‐Jubury, A.; LaPatra, S.; Christensen, N. D.; Zuo, S.; Tafalla, Carolina; Buchmann, K. (2016). Exclusion of IgD‐, IgT‐ and IgM‐positive immune cells in Ichthyophonus‐induced granulomas in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 39;11, 1399-1402. doi:

Buchmann K, Mehrdana F. (2016). Effects of anisakid nematodes Anisakis simplex (s.l.), Pseudoterranova decipiens (s.l.) and Contracaecum osculatum (s.l.) on fish and consumer health. Food and Waterborne Parasitology 4, 13-22; doi: 10.1016/j.fawpar.2016.07.003.

Fontenla F, Blanco-Abad V, Pardo BG, Folgueira I, Noia M, Gómez-Tato A, Martínez P, Leiro JM, Lamas J (2016). Vaccine-induced modulation of gene expression in turbot peritoneal cells. A microarray approach. Molecular Immunology 75, 188–199; doi:10.1016/j.molimm. 2016.06.001Click here to access the full text

Hartigan A, Estensoro I, Vancová M, Bílý T, Patra S, Eszterbauer E, Holzer AS (2016). New cell motility model observed in parasitic cnidarian Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) blood stages in fish. Scientific reports 6. doi: 10.1038/srep39093

Liu Y, Zachow C, Raaijmakers JM, de Bruijn I (2016). Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclinaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, 140; doi: 10.3390/ijms17010140.Click here to access the full text.

Mallo N, Lamas J, de Felipe A-P, Sueiro R-A, Fontenla F, Leiro J-M (2016). Enzymes Involved in Pyrophosphate and Calcium Metabolism as Targets for Anti-scuticociliate Chemotherapy. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 0, 1–11; doi:10.1111/jeu.12294.Click here to access the full text.

Mallo N, Lamas J, de Felipe A-P, DeCastro M-E, Sueiro R-A, Leiro J-M (2016). Presence of an isoform of H+-pyrophosphatase located in the alveolar sacs of a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: physiological consequences. Parasitology 143, 576-587; doi:10.1017/S0031182015001997.Click here to access the full text.

Mallo N, de Felipe A-P, Folgueira I, Sueiro R-A, Lamas J, Leiro J-M (2016). Combined antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory effects of the natural polyphenol curcumin on turbot scuticociliatosis. Journal of Fish Diseases; doi:10.1111/jfd.12503.Click here to access the full text.

Mallo N, Lamas J, de Felipe A-P, Sueiro R-A, Fontenla F, Leiro J-M (2016). Role of H+-pyrophosphatase activity in the regulation of intracellular pH in a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: Physiological effects. Experimental Parasitology 169, 59-68; 10.1016/j.exppara.2016.07.012Click here to access the full text.

Piazzon MC, Galindo-Villegas J, Pereiro P, Estensoro I, Calduch-Giner JA, Gómez-Casado E, Novoa B, Mulero V, Sitjà-Bobadilla A and Pérez-Sánchez J (2016). Differential Modulation of igT and igM upon Parasitic, Bacterial, Viral, and Dietary challenges in a Perciform Fish. Front. Immunol. 7:637; doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00637

Rigos G, Mladineo I, Nikoloudaki C, Vrbatovic A, Kogiannou D (2016). Application of compound mixture of caprylic acid, iron and mannan oligosaccharide against Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurataFolia Parasitologica 63, 027; doi: 10.14411/fp.2016.027.

Wiegertjes GF, Wentzel AS, Spaink HP, Elks PM, Finka IR (2016). Polarization of immune responses in fish: The ‘macrophages first’ point of view. Molecular Immunology 69, 146-56; doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.09.026Click here to access the full text.

Zhao D, Borkhanuddin MH, Wang W, Liu Y, Cech G, Zhai Y, Székely C (2016). The life cycle of Thelohanellus kitauei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting common carp (Cyprinus carpio) involves aurantiactinomyxon in Branchiura sowerbyiParasitology Research; doi:10.1007/s00436-016- 5215-y.Click here to access the full text.


Liu Y, Rzeszutek E, van der Voort M, Wu C-H, Thoen E, Skaar I, Bulone V, Dorrestein PC, Raaijmakers JM, de Bruijn I (2015). Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia. PLoS One 10(8): e0136241; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136241.

Public deliverables

D8.3 - 1st newsletter - click here to download.

D8.6 - 2nd newsletter - click here to download.

D8.7 - 3rd newsletter - click here to download.

D8.13 - 4th newsletter - click here to download.

D8.14 - Fish Farmer’s Guide to Combating Parasitic Infections in Salmonid Aquaculture - click here to download.

D8.14 - Fish Farmer’s Guide to Combating Parasitic Infections in Turbot Aquaculture - click here to download.

D8.14 - Fish Farmer’s Guide to Combating Parasitic Infections in Common Carp Aquaculture - click here to download.

D8.14 - Fish Farmer’s Guide to Combating Parasitic Infections in European Sea Bass and Gilthead Sea Bream Aquaculture - click here to download.

D8.15 - ParaFishControl international conference report - click here to download.


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 Communication & Press: Marieke Reuver                 Coordination: Dr. Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla              Management: Dr. Enric Belles-Boix            


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