Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes: biological and pathological roles. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 59:42. doi.org/10.1186/s13028-017-0310-3
Parasites from the family Anisakidae are widely distributed in marine fish populations worldwide and mainly nematodes of the three genera Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum have attracted attention due to their pathogenicity in humans. Human consumption of raw or underprocessed seafood containing third stage larvae of anisakid parasites may elicit a gastrointestinal disease (anisakidosis) and allergic responses. Excretory and secretory (ES) compounds produced by the parasites are assumed to be key players in clinical manifestation of the disease in humans, but the molecules are likely to play a general biological role in invertebrates and lower vertebrates as well. ES products have several functions during infection, e.g. penetration of host tissues and evasion of host immune responses, but are at the same time known to elicit immune responses (including antibody production) both in fish and mammals. ES proteins from anisakid nematodes, in particular Anisakis simplex, are currently applied for diagnostic purposes but recent evidence suggests that they also may have a therapeutic potential in immune-related diseases.
Anisakis simplex ©Wikimedia Commons, Anilocra
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